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Evolution of acupuncture techniques for jin diseases and the rise and fall of jingjin doctrine

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2023 Aug 12;43(8):855-67. doi: 10.13703/j.0255-2930.20230316-k0002.


It has the important enlightenment and reference significance for the inheritance and innovation of jin (sinew/fascia) diseases and its theoretic basis, jingjin (muscle region of meridian) doctrine by sorting out the origin of the acupuncture techniques for jin diseases and exploring the root of its rise and fall. Using context analysis, overall investigation and practice test, the paper elaborates the basic concepts, e.g. needling techniques for jin, jingjin, jinji (muscular contracture) and jiejin (knotted tendon), and jingjin doctrine. In particular, the three key concepts, i.e. fanzhen jieci (heating after needling), yizhi weishu (feelings from patients and acupuncture operators) and yitong weishu (the worst painful sites of muscle spasm) are deeply investigated. These three concepts, involved in the treatment of jingjin disorders, treatment principles and methods, are of a great controversy in the current academic circle. The author clarified the category of needling for jin disease and main needling techniques, investigated specially the origin of fanzhen jieci and guancifa (repeated needling directly on the foci), and explored the evolution of the needling methods that had been controversial or neglected for a long time, i.e. neire cifa (technique for inducing heat inside for cold obstruction), guancifa, tiaocifa (inserting the needles around the foci), fencifa (intramuscular needling) and mucifa (deep puncturing to the peritoneum or on front-mu points). Finally, from the relationship between jin and mai (meridian), and the differences between dry needling and acupuncture technique for jin diseases, the author explored the crucial problems and countermeasures urgently required in the future development of jingjin doctrine so as to provide the references for the theoretical innovation of acupuncture- moxibustion science.

PMID:37577879 | DOI:10.13703/j.0255-2930.20230316-k0002


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