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Best Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Post-Stroke Spasticity: A Modified Scoping Review

Toxins (Basel). 2024 Feb 10;16(2):98. doi: 10.3390/toxins16020098.


This article aims to provide a concise overview of the best available evidence for managing post-stroke spasticity. A modified scoping review, conducted following the PRISMA guidelines and the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), involved an intensive search on Medline and PubMed from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2023. The focus was placed on high-quality (GRADE A) medical, rehabilitation, and surgical interventions. In total, 32 treatments for post-stroke spasticity were identified. Two independent reviewers rigorously assessed studies, extracting data, and evaluating bias using GRADE criteria. Only interventions with GRADE A evidence were considered. The data included the study type, number of trials, participant characteristics, interventions, parameters, controls, outcomes, and limitations. The results revealed eleven treatments supported by GRADE A evidence, comprising 14 studies. Thirteen were systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and one was randomized control trial. The GRADE A treatments included stretching exercises, static stretching with positional orthosis, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, peripheral magnetic stimulation, non-invasive brain stimulation, botulinum toxin A injection, dry needling, intrathecal baclofen, whole body vibration, and localized muscle vibration. In conclusion, this modified scoping review highlights the multimodal treatments supported by GRADE A evidence as being effective for improving functional recovery and quality of life in post-stroke spasticity. Further research and exploration of new therapeutic options are encouraged.

PMID:38393176 | DOI:10.3390/toxins16020098


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